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GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION                                                                                                                                                                                                        Geographic Location

Bontoc is located in the central part of Mountain Province with a mean coordinates of 17o 05’ latitude and 120o 56’ longitude. The municipality is bounded on the north by municipality of Tubo, Abra; northeast by Municipality of Sadanga; on the east by municipality of Barlig, Mountain Province; south by municipality of Banaue and Hungduan, Ifugao; southwest by municipality of Sabangan; west by Sagada, and Besao Mountain Province. Bontoc is one of the municipalities where the Chico River traverses leading to the province of Kalinga and Cagayan Province.

POLITICAL BOUNDARIES

The municipality of Bontoc has sixteen barangays namely Bontoc Ili, Caluttit, Poblacion and Samoki which are the central barangays; Tocucan, Caneo, Talubin and Bayyo which are the river side barangays; Alab Oriente, Alab Proper, Balili and Gonogon which are the ALBAGO barangays; Dalican, Mainit Guina-ang and Maligcong which are the up-land barangays. The largest barangay is Mainit with an area of 12,726 hectares and followed by Bayyo and the smallest is Caluttit.

Table 2.1:     Barangay and Land Area

Barangay

Land Area (Has.)

1. Alab Oriente

854

2. Alab Proper

583

3. Balili

315

4. Bayyo

4,775

5. Bontoc Ili

2,154

6. Caluttit

57

7. Caneo

1,472

8. Dalican

1,117

9. Gonogon

1,608

10. Guina-ang

1,070

11. Mainit

12,726

12. Maligcong

1,669

13. Poblacion

32

14. Samoki

1,388

15. Talubin

7,258

16. Tocucan

2,534

TOTAL

39,612

Reference: DENR, MPDO

 

 


TOPOGRAPHY


Elevation 

The highest elevation in the municipality is found in Mount Kalawitan, barangay Bayyo with an Elevation of 2,714 meters above sea level (masl) located at the southern part of the municipality while the lowest is in barangay Tocucan with an elevation of 800 meter above sea level (masl) where all major rivers and creeks drain northeastward. This means that the municipality is ensconced by mountains with natural exit point in the lowest northeastern part (See Elevation Map).

Slope

The slope gradients in the municipality were interpreted from topographic maps based on horizontal distances among contour lines. These as follows:

8% nearly level to undulating

8-18% undulating to moderately sloping

18-30% moderately sloping to strongly sloping

Above 30% Steep to very steep

The majority of the total land mass of Bontoc ranges from 18% to 39% which comprises 88.89 percent of the total land area. Moderately sloping to strongly sloping areas are found in almost all the barangays especially in settlement areas. The concentration of serve slopes is found in barangays Mainit, Bayyo, Gonogon, Alab Oriente, Caneo and Tocucan. See Slope Map Figure:

Rock Formation

The surface area of Bontoc is underlain by two rock formation: sedimentary and Igneous….

Land Forms

There are alluvium plain found in central Bontoc and volcanic mountains found in all barangays except Poblacion and Caluttit.

Soils

Soil Classification by Physiography

The soils in Bontoc are of sandstone, shale and karstic limestone origin. The depths and horizons differ according to elevation and slope. This means that the soils can be classified by river terraces, minor stream valley, sedimentary hills and mountains, meta sediment and meta volcanic mountain, limestone and volcanic mountain. This soil pattern is presented in Figure ___ and in table 2.2. 

High Lime Stone Mountain

This soil grouping is manifested in terraced side slopes which are distributed in 10 barangays with the high distribution rate found in Mainit with 2,311 hectares.  Tocucan has 451 hectares of this type of soil and Maligcong with 421 hectares.  Total land area of terraced side slopes under this classification is 3,819 hectares. 

High Sedimentary Mountains      

The soil grouping totals 7,900 hectares with 1,307 hectares located in 7 barangays with the biggest concentration found in Guina-ang with 623 hectares and Bayyo with 411 hectares.  It is also concentrated in moderately steep slopes  above 1000 meters above sea level in the barangays of Bayyo (2,778 has), Can-eo (1,615 has), and Bontoc Ili (660 has).  This soil type is also located in the steep slopes of Guina-ang (1,161 has), Maligcong (121 has) and the rest distributed in Mainit, Poblacion, Samoki and Tocucan.

High Volcanic Mountains

This is found in terraced side slopes and steep slopes with the greatest concentration found in Talubin (5,256 has), Talubin (1,312 has) and Maligcong (223 has).

Table 2.2.Soil Distribution by Physiographic Classification per Barangay in Bontoc, 2008

Code

Physiographic Class

Terrain Description

1.1

b

River terrace

Highland river terrace

1.2

a

Minor Stream Valley

Minor stream valley

3.4

a

High Limestone Mountain

Terraced side slopes

 

b

 

Steep slopes

3.6

a

High Metavolcanic and Metasediment Mountains

Terraced side slopes

 

b

 

Steep slopes

3.7

a

High Sedimentary Mountains

Terraced side slopes

 

b

(>1000 masl sandstone and shale)

Moderately steep slopes

 

c

 

Steep slopes

3.8

a

High Volcanic Mountain

Terraced side slopes

 

b

 

Steep slopes


Source: Planimetric measurement based from Physiographic Soil Map. Municipal Book of Maps of

Bontoc. July 2008.

Soil Series

There are three type of soils found in Bontoc. These are the Sabangan Clay Loam, Natonin Silt, and several undifferentiated mountain soils.   Sabangan Clay Loam is found in western and southern barangays of Gonogon, Balili, Alab Oriente, Alab Proper, Dalican, Bontoc Ili, Talubin and Bayyo, including the river valley of Chico along Poblacion, Caluttit, and Tocucan. Natonin Silt is prominent in the eastern barangays of Tocucan, Caneo, Talubin and Bayyo, including portions of Bontoc Ili. Undifferentiated mountain soils are left unexplored in barangays Maligcong, Mainit, Dalican, Bontoc Ili, Tocucan, Caneo, Talubin, and Bayyo.

 


LAND RESOURCES


Land Classification

The legal status of land in Bontoc consists of Built-up, Agricultural and Forest land. Alienable and Disposable (A &D) lands are found in the Bontoc Ili, Maligcong, Samoki, Alab Oriente, Balili and Tocucan a total of 2,016 hectares representing 5% of the Municipal territory.

Built-up Areas

Built up areas is intended for settlements and infrastructures.  The total built up area of Bontoc is 569.55 hectares. It also includes all the major road infrastructures in the municipality.

Agricultural Areas

It covers an area of 2,456.34 hectares for corn, highland vegetables, lowland fruit trees, bananas, rice and inland fishing areas.

Forest Areas

The municipality has a total forest area of 36,226.20 hectares representing 91. 45% of the total municipal land area. 

Water Bodies

It covers a total of 359.91 hectares which includes lakes and wetlands, fishing grounds including major rivers and creeks.   This land use category accounts of 0.91 per cent of the total land area of the municipality.

Table 2.3 Existing General Land Use.  Bontoc, Mountain Province

Existing Categories

Land Area (Has)

% to Total

1.  Forest and Forest Land

36,226.20

91.45

2.  Agricultural Area

2,456.34

6.2

3.  Water Bodies

359.91

0.9

4.  Eco-Tourism

124.23

0.3

5. Residential

321.23

0.8

6. Commercial

15.71

0. 039

7. Institutional

20. 58

0.5

8. Parks and Recreation

3.39

0. 0085

9. Cemetery and Memorial Park

.34

0. 00085

10.Infrastructure/Utilities Transportation and Services (IUTS)

81.27

0. 2

11. Waste Processing Facility

2.8

0. 007

Total

39,612

100.00

Source:  DENR, MPDO

Urban Land Use Pattern

Among the 16 barangays of Bontoc, barangay Poblacion is considered an urban area considering its population, strategic location, and high development potentials, i.e., commercial space, institutional and residential areas. The barangays of Bontoc Ili, Caluttit and Samoki are adjacent to the Poblacion. These also comprise congested settlements which are considered urbanized.

Agricultural Area

The total agricultural land area of the four urban barangays is 1,468.03 hectares which accounts for 33.16 per cent of the total land area of the four barangays. 

Built Up Areas

This includes land uses for residential purposes of 22.12 hectares (36.26 %); commercial lands (6 hectares), 9.83 per cent; and institutional lands (2 hectares), 3.27 per cent   for a total of 30.12 hectares accounting for 49.37 per cent of the total urban land area.  This land use classification also includes the road infrastructures existing within the urban area.  The public market is the central business district in the municipality, which has been booming all over the Poblacion, creating a pseudo-commercial use within established residential areas. 

Industrial Area

This land category covers areas wherein industries such as manufacturing and processing establishments are located either wholly or partially devoted for industrial purposes.  However, in the case of Bontoc, Mountain Province, there are no assigned specific sites/areas particular to this land category.  Industries under this classification are spread out in residential as well as other land classifications. 

Forest lands

Among the sixteen barangays Bontoc Ili and Samoki have a total of 2,409.70 hectares of forest Lands. There are no forest lands in the other two urban barangays, Caluttit and Poblacion.

Table 2.4 Existing Urban Land Use, Bontoc, Mountain Province.

Urban Land Use Classification 

Area coverage in Hectares by Barangay

Poblacion

Bontoc Ili

Caluttit

Samoki

TOTAL

1.  Agricultural    Area

26.88

875.75

16

158

 1,076.63

2. Built Up and Infrastructure

30.12

150

36

50

266.12

            -  Residential

22.12

125.5

31

48.80

227.42

            -  Commercial

6

24

1

1

32

            -  Institutional

2

.5

4

0.2

6.7

            -  Industrial

-

-

-

-

 -

3.  Forest

0

1,558.25

0

497

2,055.25

4. Bodies of Water (Rivers, Creeks, Wetlands

4

15

2

8

28

Total

61

2,599

54

713

3,427

Source: Land Use Map


MINERAL RESOURCES


Bontoc is rich in gold especially in barangays Mainit, Alab Proper and Maligcong where gold panning is existing.  There were previous studies conducted by mining firms in barangay Mainit but these findings have not been formally released for public consumption.  However, there is prevailing practice of gold panning in barangay Mainit. 

The quarry source for sand and gravel is from the Chico River notably within the barangays that are close in this river but the major source is found in central Bontoc. Other barangays, sand and gravel is found in the tributaries of this river but it is very minimal. The Bayyo side of Mount Polis bordering the municipality of Banaue is also a potential source of mountain sand and gravel but it is not as good with the Chico quarry source. 


COASTAL RESOURCES


Bontoc has no coastal resources since it is not found in the coastal area.


FRESHWATER RESOURCES


Surface Runoff

The Chico River and its tributary creeks of Bontoc are ungaged. It is therefore impossible to get data on surface water viability most especially for this study.

Fresh Water Resources

There are six (6) identified water sources servicing the barangays of Talubin, Bontoc Ili, Poblacion, Caluttit and Samoki with a total of about 732 connections for both private and commercial uses. The other barangays source their water from available springs.  The current water supply of the municipality is not sufficient.


CLIMATE


The climate in the municipality is classified as Type I where there are pronounced dry and wet seasons — dry between the later part of October and the month of April, and wet during the rest of the year.

Bontoc is annually visited by typhoons with the highest rainfall gauged during the months of July and September. The Department of Agriculture recorded the average annual rainfall in Bontoc at 180 mm. Average temperature reaches 19.4 degree Celsius with temperature at its highest in the months of May and June. 

Atmospheric Temperature

Bontoc has an average of 19.4 degree Celsius. The temperature is at its highest on the months of April to June. January to February usually is the coldest months where the temperature reaches less than 10 degree Celsius. Warmer months are experienced in the March and April while cooler temperature experienced from November to February.

Relative Humidity

During 1988 to 2000, the PAG-ASA recorded 83.90% for the month of December. This is the lowest humidity in the last 12 years while the highest humidity was recorded 91.79% in the month of August. For the last 12 years, Bontoc has an average humidity reaches 87.40%.

Cloudiness

The mean annual cloudiness is about 11oktas. An okta is the number of days in a month when the sky has at least 75% cloud cover. Month of April has the least while July has the most number of cloudy days.

Rainfall

Bontoc has an average rainfall of 326.76 mm. The highest rainfall is experienced in the months of July to October and the lowest rainfall is within the month of January.

Table 2.5 Climatological Data, Bontoc, Mountain Province.

Months

Annual Rainfall

mm

Temperature

ºC

Humidity

%

January

9.4

18.1

84.74

February

24.9

18.6

84.81

March

73.5

19.8

85.61

April

258.3

19.8

84.44

May

287.6

20.5

88.38

June

426.3

20.4

89.07

July

846.0

19.8

91.11

August

604.5

19.5

91.79

September

681.2

19.5

89.57

October

595.6

19.6

89.16

November

92.8

19.0

86.28

December

21.0

18.2

83.90

Total (average)

326.758

19.4

87.40

Source:   Pagasa, 2010

Natural Hazard/ Constraints

There are two potential natural hazards or physical constraints to the development of Bontoc. These are Erosion and Fault lines. Flood also is considered to be another natural hazard in the areas along the Chico River.

Erosion

All the 16 barangays except Poblacion are prone to erosion especially in those areas of more than 30% slope

Fault lines

There are several major faults that could affect the municipality, namely: Philippine fault – active fault where an earthquake with intensity 7.8 on the Richter scale occurred; the Digdig and Baguio faults are potential earthquake generators being attached as north lateral splices of the Philippine fault. Minor landscape deformations such as joints, fractures, shear and gorge zones are manifestations of past fault activities and intrusions. These major faults (lineaments) found by the Phivolcs in the municipality are presented in the Development Constraints Map. Fault 1 passes through the western flank while Fault 2 on the eastern flank.

Table 2.6       Major Fault lines

Name of Fault Line

Number of Splice(s)

Traversed Barangays

Digdig Fault

1

Gonogon, Balili, Bontoc Ili, Guina-ang; and Mainit

Source: Phivolcs, Quezon City